Difference between revisions of "Depth Sensors Comparison"

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[[iPi Recorder]] supports the following depth sensors:
 
[[iPi Recorder]] supports the following depth sensors:
 
* Modern depth sensors:
 
* Modern depth sensors:
 +
** [https://azure.microsoft.com/en-in/services/kinect-dk/ Azure Kinect]
 
** MS Kinect 2 ([https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00INAX3Q2/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wwwipisoftcom-20&camp=1789&creative=9325&linkCode=as2&creativeASIN=B00INAX3Q2&linkId=da247a196e84f14c2b61c08d18af20d9 XBOX One Kinect] sensor plus [https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B01GVE4YB4/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wwwipisoftcom-20&camp=1789&creative=9325&linkCode=as2&creativeASIN=B01GVE4YB4&linkId=9badef6020066e1ff88608b3bdd77734 Kinect Adapter for Windows])
 
** MS Kinect 2 ([https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00INAX3Q2/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wwwipisoftcom-20&camp=1789&creative=9325&linkCode=as2&creativeASIN=B00INAX3Q2&linkId=da247a196e84f14c2b61c08d18af20d9 XBOX One Kinect] sensor plus [https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B01GVE4YB4/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wwwipisoftcom-20&camp=1789&creative=9325&linkCode=as2&creativeASIN=B01GVE4YB4&linkId=9badef6020066e1ff88608b3bdd77734 Kinect Adapter for Windows])
 
** [https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0748LHXTX/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wwwipisoftcom-20&camp=1789&creative=9325&linkCode=as2&creativeASIN=B0748LHXTX&linkId=99e13fb4588e2861884dc70a34e0ee15 Orbbec Astra (PRO)]
 
** [https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0748LHXTX/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wwwipisoftcom-20&camp=1789&creative=9325&linkCode=as2&creativeASIN=B0748LHXTX&linkId=99e13fb4588e2861884dc70a34e0ee15 Orbbec Astra (PRO)]
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<center><table border=0><tr>
 
<center><table border=0><tr>
   <td width="22%"><center>[[Image:Kinect-2-for-XboxOne.jpg|thumb|Kinect 2 (Kinect for XBOX One)]]</center></td>
+
   <td width="18%"><center>[[Image:AzureKinect.jpg|thumb|Azure Kinect (Kinect for Azure)]]</center></td>
   <td width="4%"></td>
+
  <td width="2.5%"></td>
   <td width="22%"><center>[[Image:Orbbec-Astra.jpg|thumb|Orbbec Astra (PRO)]]</center></td>
+
  <td width="18%"><center>[[Image:Kinect-2-for-XboxOne.jpg|thumb|Kinect 2 (Kinect for XBOX One)]]</center></td>
   <td width="4%"></td>
+
   <td width="2.5%"></td>
   <td width="22%"><center>[[Image:Intel-RealSense-D415-and-D435.jpg|thumb|Intel RealSense D415 and D435]]</center></td>
+
   <td width="18%"><center>[[Image:Orbbec-Astra.jpg|thumb|Orbbec Astra (PRO)]]</center></td>
   <td width="4%"></td>
+
   <td width="2.5%"></td>
   <td width="22%"><center>[[Image:ASUS-Xtion2.jpg|thumb|ASUS Xtion 2]]</center></td>
+
   <td width="18%"><center>[[Image:Intel-RealSense-D415-and-D435.jpg|thumb|Intel RealSense D415 and D435]]</center></td>
 +
   <td width="2.5%"></td>
 +
   <td width="18%"><center>[[Image:ASUS-Xtion2.jpg|thumb|ASUS Xtion 2]]</center></td>
 
</tr></table></center>
 
</tr></table></center>
  
 
* First generation depth sensors:
 
* First generation depth sensors:
** MS Kinect v1 ([https://www.amazon.com/Microsoft-L6M-00001-Kinect-for-Windows/dp/B006UIS53K Kinect for Windows] sensor or [https://www.amazon.com/Microsoft-360-Kinect-Sensor-Certified-Refurbished/dp/B005GA1H4C] sensor plus [https://www.amazon.com/Supply-Adapter-Microsoft-Kinect-Motion-Sensor/dp/B004S7GA46 adapter])
+
** MS Kinect v1 ([https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00KZIVEXO/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wwwipisoftcom-20&camp=1789&creative=9325&linkCode=as2&creativeASIN=B00KZIVEXO&linkId=7befb1e430ea4c5e74df7f3c88cbb4dd Kinect for Windows] sensor or [https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B005GA1H4C/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wwwipisoftcom-20&camp=1789&creative=9325&linkCode=as2&creativeASIN=B005GA1H4C&linkId=13d4fc04342fcf68688afe263a34273e Microsoft Xbox 360 Kinect Sensor] sensor plus [https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B004S7GA46/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wwwipisoftcom-20&camp=1789&creative=9325&linkCode=as2&creativeASIN=B004S7GA46&linkId=e5e252928fe7345bac08aa2b657c30c1 adapter])
 
** [http://www.asus.com/Multimedia/Motion_Sensor/Xtion_PRO/ ASUS Xtion] and [http://www.asus.com/Multimedia/Motion_Sensor/Xtion_PRO_LIVE/ ASUS Xtion Live] devices (and also PRO modifications for developers)
 
** [http://www.asus.com/Multimedia/Motion_Sensor/Xtion_PRO/ ASUS Xtion] and [http://www.asus.com/Multimedia/Motion_Sensor/Xtion_PRO_LIVE/ ASUS Xtion Live] devices (and also PRO modifications for developers)
** [http://www.amazon.com/gp/offer-listing/B00KO92DA2/ref=dp_olp_0?ie=UTF8&condition=all&sr=1-7&qid=1420621852 PrimeSense Carmine 1.08]
+
** PrimeSense Carmine 1.08
  
 
<center><table border=0><tr>
 
<center><table border=0><tr>
Line 33: Line 36:
 
</tr></table></center>
 
</tr></table></center>
  
First generation depth sensors are almost outdated but still usable. For example, [https://www.amazon.com/Orbbec-Astra-Pro-3D-Camera/dp/B0748LHXTX Orbbec Astra (PRO)] has totally the same depth quality and resolution as these outdated sensors. For this reason you can use for example MS Kinect v1 sensor(s) and get exactly the same results as with Orbbec Astra sensor(s). If needed you can find more information about these sensors in [http://wiki.ipisoft.com/Depth_Sensors_Comparison documentation for previous version of iPi Motion Capture].
+
First generation depth sensors are almost outdated but still usable. For example, [https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0748LHXTX/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=wwwipisoftcom-20&camp=1789&creative=9325&linkCode=as2&creativeASIN=B0748LHXTX&linkId=99e13fb4588e2861884dc70a34e0ee15 Orbbec Astra (PRO)] has totally the same depth quality and resolution as these outdated sensors. For this reason you can use for example MS Kinect v1 sensor(s) and get exactly the same results as with Orbbec Astra sensor(s). If needed you can find more information about these sensors in [http://wiki.ipisoft.com/Depth_Sensors_Comparison documentation for previous version of iPi Motion Capture].
  
As to modern depth sensors, MS Kinect 2 (Kinect for XBOX One) sensor remains the best choice for full body motion capture. The quality and accuracy of depth map from MS Kinect 2 are the best in market.
+
As to modern depth sensors, Azure Kinect sensor is the best choice for full body motion capture, while MS Kinect 2 (Kinect for XBOX One) sensor is also good enough. The quality and accuracy of depth maps from Azure Kinects and MS Kinects 2 are the best in market.
  
{{Important|Only one MS Kinect 2 (Kinect for XBOX One) sensor can be connected to a single PC due to limitation in Microsoft Kinect SDK 2. Each MS Kinect 2 (Kinect for XBOX One) sensor can be connected to a separate computer, [[Distributed Recording]] feature must be used.}}
+
{{Important|Multiple MS Kinect 2 (Kinect for XBOX One) sensors can be connected to a PC [[Multiple_Kinects_v2_on_a_Single_PC|with libfreenect2 library]]. With Microsoft SDK v2, each Kinect should be connected to a separate computer and [[Distributed Recording]] utilized.}}
  
 
== Comparison ==
 
== Comparison ==
Line 46: Line 49:
 
! Place !! Sensor !! Price (approx) !! Technology !! Depth FOV (vertical) !! Depth Resolution !! Depth FPS !! Interface !! Multiple Sensors per single PC !! External Power Supply !! Tripod Mount
 
! Place !! Sensor !! Price (approx) !! Technology !! Depth FOV (vertical) !! Depth Resolution !! Depth FPS !! Interface !! Multiple Sensors per single PC !! External Power Supply !! Tripod Mount
 
|-
 
|-
| 1 || Kinect 2 (Kinect for XBOX One) || $160 || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time-of-flight_camera Time-of-Flight] || 60° || 512x424 (very good quality!) || 30 || USB 3.0 || no || required || yes (1/4″)
+
| 1 || Azure Kinect || $400 || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time-of-flight_camera Time-of-Flight] || NFOV: 65°<br/>WFOV: 120° || NFOV: 640x576 (very good quality!)<br/>WFOV: 512x512 || 30 || USB 3.0 || yes || optional || yes (1/4″)
 
|-
 
|-
| 2 || First-gen depth sensors || from $30 || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_light Infrared Coded Structured Light] || 45° || 640x480 (interpolated, actual: 320x240 or even less) || 30 || USB 2.0 || yes || not required (except Kinect v1) || no
+
| 2 || Kinect 2 (Kinect for XBOX One) || $160 || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time-of-flight_camera Time-of-Flight] || 60° || 512x424 (good quality) || 30 || USB 3.0 || yes || required || yes (1/4″)
 
|-
 
|-
| 2 || Orbbec Astra (PRO) || $160 || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_light Infrared Coded Structured Light] || 45° || 640x480 (interpolated, actual: 320x240 or even less) || 30 || USB 2.0 || yes || not required || yes (M6 not 1/4″)
+
| 3 || First-gen depth sensors || from $30 || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_light Infrared Coded Structured Light] || 45° || 640x480 (interpolated, actual: 320x240 or even less) || 30 || USB 2.0 || yes || not required (except Kinect v1) || no
 
|-
 
|-
| 3 || Intel RealSense D435 || $180 || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_light Infrared Coded Structured Light] combined with stereo RGB matching || 65.5° (only 42° for RGB) || up to 1280x720 (but very noisy, inaccurate and with a lot of artifacts like waves and blur!) || up to 90 || USB 3.0 || yes || not required || yes (1/4″)
+
| 4 || Orbbec Astra (PRO) || $160 || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_light Infrared Coded Structured Light] || 45° || 640x480 (interpolated, actual: 320x240 or even less) || 30 || USB 2.0 || yes || not required || yes (M6 not 1/4″)
 
|-
 
|-
| 3 || ASUS Xtion 2 || $270 || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time-of-flight_camera Time-of-Flight] || 52° (can be mounted in vertical position for 74°) || 640x480 (interpolated: actual is less than 320x240) || 30 || USB 3.0 || no || not required || yes (1/4″, dual at bottom and side)
+
| 5 || Intel RealSense D435 || $180 || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_light Infrared Coded Structured Light] combined with stereo RGB matching || 65.5° (only 42° for RGB) || up to 1280x720 (but very noisy, inaccurate and with a lot of artifacts like waves and blur!) || up to 90 || USB 3.0 || yes || not required || yes (1/4″)
 +
|-
 +
| 6 || ASUS Xtion 2 || $270 || [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time-of-flight_camera Time-of-Flight] || 52° (can be mounted in vertical position for 74°) || 640x480 (interpolated: actual is less than 320x240) || 30 || USB 3.0 || yes || not required || yes (1/4″, dual at bottom and side)
 
|}
 
|}
  
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! Place || Sensor !! Pros !! Cons
 
! Place || Sensor !! Pros !! Cons
 
|-
 
|-
| 1 || Kinect 2 (Kinect for XBOX One) ||
+
| 1 || Azure Kinect ||
* Higher FOV  
+
* The highest FOV (especially in WFOV mode)
* Higher resolution of depth and RGB video
+
* High resolution of depth and RGB video
* Lower noise, better quality and accuracy of point cloud
+
* Low noise, the best quality and accuracy of point cloud
* Higher overall tracking quality can be expected
+
* The highest overall tracking and calibration quality can be expected
* Much better feet tracking
+
* Good feet tracking
 
* Low mutual sensors interference
 
* Low mutual sensors interference
 
* More tolerant to lighting conditions
 
* More tolerant to lighting conditions
 +
* Supports external synchronization (for ideal sync of multiple devices)
 +
* Has settings for RGB camera (calibration video can be recorded in light room)
 +
* Multiple sensors can be connected to one and the same computer
 +
* Has mount for tripod
 +
||
 +
* High price
 +
* Short USB-cables (use active USB 3.0 repeaters to overcome this drawback)
 +
* Doesn't like certain fabrics (e.g. shiny)
 +
* Requires USB 3.0 controller
 +
* Requires Windows 10 64-bit (doesn't work in Windows 7, 8 and 8.1)
 +
|-
 +
| 2 || Kinect 2 (Kinect for XBOX One) ||
 +
* Good-enough FOV
 +
* Relatively high resolution of depth and RGB video
 +
* Low noise, good-enough quality and accuracy of point cloud
 +
* High overall tracking quality can be expected
 +
* Good-enough feet tracking
 +
* Low mutual sensors interference
 +
* Rather tolerant to lighting conditions
 
* Has mount for tripod
 
* Has mount for tripod
 
||  
 
||  
 +
* Sensor itself is rather bulky
 +
* There's no settings for RGB camera like Exposition and Gain (thus, for light marker calibration video you have to have rather dark room)
 
* Doesn't like certain fabrics (e.g. shiny)
 
* Doesn't like certain fabrics (e.g. shiny)
 
* Requires USB 3.0 controller and external power supply
 
* Requires USB 3.0 controller and external power supply
* Only one sensor per single PC is supported by Microsoft Kinect SDK 2
 
 
* Does not work on Windows 7 (requires Windows 8 and higher)
 
* Does not work on Windows 7 (requires Windows 8 and higher)
 
|-
 
|-
| 2 || First-generation Depth Sensors ||  
+
| 3 || First-generation Depth Sensors ||  
 
* Ensures tracking quality comparable with that of Kinect 2, but hardware requirements are not so strong
 
* Ensures tracking quality comparable with that of Kinect 2, but hardware requirements are not so strong
 
* Requires USB 2.0 controller
 
* Requires USB 2.0 controller
Line 90: Line 115:
 
* No mount for tripod
 
* No mount for tripod
 
|-
 
|-
| 2 || Orbbec Astra (PRO) ||
+
| 4 || Orbbec Astra (PRO) ||
 
:''See above (as 1st gen. depth sensors)''
 
:''See above (as 1st gen. depth sensors)''
 
:Plus:
 
:Plus:
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* Non-standard tripod mount &mdash; '''M6''' instead of '''1/4″'''
 
* Non-standard tripod mount &mdash; '''M6''' instead of '''1/4″'''
 
|-
 
|-
| 3 || Intel RealSense D435 ||
+
| 5 || Intel RealSense D435 ||
 
* Up to 90 FPS
 
* Up to 90 FPS
 
* High resolution of depth map
 
* High resolution of depth map
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* RGB camera has significantly lower FOV  
 
* RGB camera has significantly lower FOV  
 
|-
 
|-
| 3 || ASUS Xtion 2 ||
+
| 6 || ASUS Xtion 2 ||
 
* Time-of-Flight like Kinect 2
 
* Time-of-Flight like Kinect 2
 
* Good field-of-view (FOV)
 
* Good field-of-view (FOV)
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* Extremely low effective resolution of depth map (too small amount of 3D dots)
 
* Extremely low effective resolution of depth map (too small amount of 3D dots)
 
* No mapping between RGB and depth
 
* No mapping between RGB and depth
* Only one sensor per single PC is supported
+
* With multiple sensors, sometimes mutual interference issues arise.
 
* High price
 
* High price
 
|}
 
|}
  
The winner is Kinect 2 (Kinect for XBOX One).
+
The winners are Azure Kinect and Kinect 2 (Kinect for XBOX One).
  
First-generation depth sensors and Orbbec Astra (PRO) share the second place.
+
First-generation depth sensors and Orbbec Astra (PRO) share the third place.
  
 
== Note about Intel RealSense D415 and D435 ==
 
== Note about Intel RealSense D415 and D435 ==
Line 143: Line 168:
  
 
The following sensors don't require special drivers and software to be recognized in [[iPi Recorder]]:
 
The following sensors don't require special drivers and software to be recognized in [[iPi Recorder]]:
 +
* Azure Kinect
 
* Intel RealSense D415 and D435
 
* Intel RealSense D415 and D435
 
* ASUS Xtion 2
 
* ASUS Xtion 2

Latest revision as of 04:00, 28 September 2019

Depth Sensors Support

iPi Recorder supports the following depth sensors:

Azure Kinect (Kinect for Azure)
Kinect 2 (Kinect for XBOX One)
Orbbec Astra (PRO)
Intel RealSense D415 and D435
ASUS Xtion 2
Microsoft Kinect for Windows
ASUS Xtion Live
ASUS Xtion
PrimeSense Carmine 1.08

First generation depth sensors are almost outdated but still usable. For example, Orbbec Astra (PRO) has totally the same depth quality and resolution as these outdated sensors. For this reason you can use for example MS Kinect v1 sensor(s) and get exactly the same results as with Orbbec Astra sensor(s). If needed you can find more information about these sensors in documentation for previous version of iPi Motion Capture.

As to modern depth sensors, Azure Kinect sensor is the best choice for full body motion capture, while MS Kinect 2 (Kinect for XBOX One) sensor is also good enough. The quality and accuracy of depth maps from Azure Kinects and MS Kinects 2 are the best in market.

Important.png
Important! Multiple MS Kinect 2 (Kinect for XBOX One) sensors can be connected to a PC with libfreenect2 library. With Microsoft SDK v2, each Kinect should be connected to a separate computer and Distributed Recording utilized.

Comparison

Main features of depth sensors:

Place Sensor Price (approx) Technology Depth FOV (vertical) Depth Resolution Depth FPS Interface Multiple Sensors per single PC External Power Supply Tripod Mount
1 Azure Kinect $400 Time-of-Flight NFOV: 65°
WFOV: 120°
NFOV: 640x576 (very good quality!)
WFOV: 512x512
30 USB 3.0 yes optional yes (1/4″)
2 Kinect 2 (Kinect for XBOX One) $160 Time-of-Flight 60° 512x424 (good quality) 30 USB 3.0 yes required yes (1/4″)
3 First-gen depth sensors from $30 Infrared Coded Structured Light 45° 640x480 (interpolated, actual: 320x240 or even less) 30 USB 2.0 yes not required (except Kinect v1) no
4 Orbbec Astra (PRO) $160 Infrared Coded Structured Light 45° 640x480 (interpolated, actual: 320x240 or even less) 30 USB 2.0 yes not required yes (M6 not 1/4″)
5 Intel RealSense D435 $180 Infrared Coded Structured Light combined with stereo RGB matching 65.5° (only 42° for RGB) up to 1280x720 (but very noisy, inaccurate and with a lot of artifacts like waves and blur!) up to 90 USB 3.0 yes not required yes (1/4″)
6 ASUS Xtion 2 $270 Time-of-Flight 52° (can be mounted in vertical position for 74°) 640x480 (interpolated: actual is less than 320x240) 30 USB 3.0 yes not required yes (1/4″, dual at bottom and side)

Major Pros and Cons of depth sensors:

Place Sensor Pros Cons
1 Azure Kinect
  • The highest FOV (especially in WFOV mode)
  • High resolution of depth and RGB video
  • Low noise, the best quality and accuracy of point cloud
  • The highest overall tracking and calibration quality can be expected
  • Good feet tracking
  • Low mutual sensors interference
  • More tolerant to lighting conditions
  • Supports external synchronization (for ideal sync of multiple devices)
  • Has settings for RGB camera (calibration video can be recorded in light room)
  • Multiple sensors can be connected to one and the same computer
  • Has mount for tripod
  • High price
  • Short USB-cables (use active USB 3.0 repeaters to overcome this drawback)
  • Doesn't like certain fabrics (e.g. shiny)
  • Requires USB 3.0 controller
  • Requires Windows 10 64-bit (doesn't work in Windows 7, 8 and 8.1)
2 Kinect 2 (Kinect for XBOX One)
  • Good-enough FOV
  • Relatively high resolution of depth and RGB video
  • Low noise, good-enough quality and accuracy of point cloud
  • High overall tracking quality can be expected
  • Good-enough feet tracking
  • Low mutual sensors interference
  • Rather tolerant to lighting conditions
  • Has mount for tripod
  • Sensor itself is rather bulky
  • There's no settings for RGB camera like Exposition and Gain (thus, for light marker calibration video you have to have rather dark room)
  • Doesn't like certain fabrics (e.g. shiny)
  • Requires USB 3.0 controller and external power supply
  • Does not work on Windows 7 (requires Windows 8 and higher)
3 First-generation Depth Sensors
  • Ensures tracking quality comparable with that of Kinect 2, but hardware requirements are not so strong
  • Requires USB 2.0 controller
  • Multiple sensors can be connected to a single computer
  • Works on Windows 7 and higher
  • Lower FOV
  • Lower resolution
  • Lower accuracy
  • Less tolerant to lighting conditions
  • Higher mutual interference of sensors leads to more noise in case of using several sensors
  • No mount for tripod
4 Orbbec Astra (PRO)
See above (as 1st gen. depth sensors)
Plus:
  • On sale
See above (as 1st gen. depth sensors)
Plus:
  • Higher price compared to 1st gen. sensors
  • Non-standard tripod mount — M6 instead of 1/4″
5 Intel RealSense D435
  • Up to 90 FPS
  • High resolution of depth map
  • Good field-of-view (FOV)
  • Very compact
  • Great tech support, fast fixes, frequent updates
  • Very low quality of depth map (high noise, many artifacts)
  • Multiple sensor configuration is not practical with this sensors because of accuracy and quality of depth map (cannot be calibrated)
  • RGB camera has significantly lower FOV
6 ASUS Xtion 2
  • Time-of-Flight like Kinect 2
  • Good field-of-view (FOV)
  • Can be mounted in vertical position
  • Very compact
  • Extremely low effective resolution of depth map (too small amount of 3D dots)
  • No mapping between RGB and depth
  • With multiple sensors, sometimes mutual interference issues arise.
  • High price

The winners are Azure Kinect and Kinect 2 (Kinect for XBOX One).

First-generation depth sensors and Orbbec Astra (PRO) share the third place.

Note about Intel RealSense D415 and D435

Based on specification Intel RealSense D415 and D435 sensors look very promising. Especially, D435 model which has wider FOV and slightly better quality of depth map.

But actual quality and accuracy of depth map from these sensors are way worse than what we could expect from modern depth sensors:

  • huge waves on relatively flat surfaces
  • thick blur around objects
  • extremely high noise both in spatial and time dimensions

These downsides make Intel sensors almost unusable for full body motion capture tasks.

For this reason we included only D435 model in comparison tables because it's more powerful and advanced compared to D415 but still is not good enough for our needs.

Drivers and Software Libraries

The following sensors don't require special drivers and software to be recognized in iPi Recorder:

  • Azure Kinect
  • Intel RealSense D415 and D435
  • ASUS Xtion 2

That is, you can simply plug in these sensors to computer and make recordings in iPi Recorder without need to install any drivers or SDK's.

Other sensors require special drivers and/or software libraries/SDK to be installed: